Cancer: A disease in which malignant cells grow out of control and spread to other parts of the body if not stopped in time.
Cancer in-situ: The stage when cancer is still confined to the tissue in which it started.
Candidiasis: A common fungal infection often seen as white patches on the tongue or on the inside of the cheeks.
Carcinogen: Something that causes cancer. For example, cigarettes contain carcinogens that cause lung cancer.
Carcinoma: A kind of cancer that starts in the skin or in the lining of organs. Lungs, intestines and the uterus are hollow organs where a carcinoma often begins.
Adenocarcinoma: A cancer of glandular cells of the body.
Basal cell carcinoma: The most common type of skin cancer.
Bronchogenic carcinoma: A cancer originating in the lungs or bronchi.
Cervical carcinoma: A cancer of the cervix (neck of the uterus).
Endometrial carcinoma: A cancer of the lining of the uterus.
Large cell carcinoma: A type of bronchogenic carcinoma. Cancer in the lung.
Oat cell or small cell carcinoma: Another type of bronchogenic carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid): Cancer of the skin or on the surfaces of other structures, such as the mouth, cervix or lungs.
Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the heart.
CAT scan: See Tomography.
CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen): A blood tumour marker” that may indicate the presence of cancer cells. Since this test is not 100% accurate, it is often used as a warning that further tests maybe needed.
Cellulitis: Inflammation of the skin and underlying tissue.
Cervical nodes: Lymph nodes in the neck.
Cervix: The neck of the uterus.
Chemotherapy: The treatment of disease with drugs.
Adjuvant chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given usually after all detectable tumour is removed by surgery or radiotherapy in order to kill any remaining cancer cells.
Combination chemotherapy: The use of more than one drug during cancer treatments.
Chronic: Persisting over a long period of time. Chronic diseases progress slowly, are continuous or recur over long periods of time.
Colonoscopy: A technique for looking at the colon or large bowel through a lighted, flexible tube.
Colostomy: A surgical procedure by which an opening is created between the colon and the outside of the abdomen so the person can pass stool into a collection bag.
Colposcopy: Examination of the vagina and cervix with an instrument called a colposcope.
Congestive heart failure: The failure of the heart to pump blood adequately, causing a buildup of fluids in the lungs and/or extremities, especially the legs.
Consultation: The review of a person’s medical history, tests, x-rays and/or pathology slides to determine the need for treatment.
Cortisone: A natural but also a synthetic steroid hormone that is used to treat inflammatory conditions and diseases as well as certain cancers.
Cyst: An accumulation of fluid or semisolid material within a sac.
Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder caused by bacteria, chemotherapy or radiation treatments.